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Formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in doner kebab cooked with different methods at varying degrees of doneness

Özsaraç, Nesrin, Kolsarici, Nuray, Demirok Soncu, Eda, Haskaraca, Güliz
Food additives & contaminants 2019 v.36 no.2 pp. 225-235
Maillard reaction, aromatic amines, cooking, creatine, creatinine, heat treatment
This study was designed to determine the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) in two different types of doner kebab (yaprak doner-YD or mix doner-MD) cooked with different cooking methods (gas or electric) at varying degrees of doneness (rare, medium, well-done). In doner samples, nine common HCAs (IQ, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, PhIP, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, AαC, MeAαC) were detected. Additionally, the changes in the HCA precursors were evaluated. The initial concentration of precursors gradually decreased with the increase in doneness degree due to degradation or possible contribution in the Maillard reaction to form HCA compounds as a result of heat treatment (p < 0.05). Creatine content decreased, while creatinine content increased because of the conversion reaction. The two most abundant HCA in doner samples were 4,8-DiMeIQx and IQ, which measured in the range of 0.020–2.865 ng g⁻¹ and 0.052–0.513 ng g⁻¹, respectively. Other detected HCAs were determined in especially well-done samples. In conclusion, the diversity and the amount of each HCA compound in doner kebab samples showed variation depending on the effect of doneness degree, doner kebab type or cooking methods (p < 0.05).