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Factors influencing the release of the biological nitrification inhibitor 1,9-decanediol from rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots
- Zhang, Xiaonan, Lu, Yufang, Yang, Ting, Kronzucker, Herbert J., Shi, Weiming
- Plant and soil 2019 v.436 no.1-2 pp. 253-265
- Nitrosomonas europaea, Oryza sativa, aeration, ammonium, bioassays, denitrifying microorganisms, hydroponics, nitrification, nitrification inhibitors, nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen, pH, rhizosphere, rice, root exudates, root systems, roots, secretion
- AIMS: Root exudates of rice (Oryza sativa L.) can inhibit nitrification in Nitrosomonas bioassays, and 1,9-decanediol was recently identified as an important new biological nitrification inhibitor (BNI) from rice. However, the release characteristics of 1,9-decanediol have not been studied. The present study was designed to identify the major factors influencing the release of 1,9-decanediol from rice roots. METHODS: Rice plants were hydroponically grown in controlled environment chambers for 6 weeks, and root exudates were collected. Responses of exudate release to nitrogen form and concentration, pH, aeration, and bacterial inoculation were explored. The pH of root exudates, collected under different nitrogen-provision regimes, was determined, and 1,9-decanediol levels in exudates were monitored. RESULTS: Ammonium (NH₄⁺) and low pH in the root environment stimulated the release of 1,9-decanediol from rice roots. When only a part of the root system was exposed to NH₄⁺, the secretion of 1,9-decanediol was triggered in the whole root system. Aeration of the root environment significantly enhanced 1,9-decanediol release. The presence of two major nitrifiers (Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas stercoris) in the root medium stimulated release of 1,9-decanediol, whereas denitrifiers had no effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the release of 1,9-decanediol is enhanced by low to moderate concentrations of NH₄⁺ (≤1.0 mM), low pH, and aeration of the rhizosphere. Our study provides the first evidence of significant 1,9-decanediol secretion induced by nitrifying bacteria.