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Copper-Mediated Mitochondrial Fission/Fusion Is Associated with Intrinsic Apoptosis and Autophagy in the Testis Tissues of Chicken
- Shao, Yizhi, Zhao, Hongjing, Wang, Yu, Liu, Juanjuan, Zong, Hui, Xing, Mingwei
- Biological trace element research 2019 v.188 no.2 pp. 468-477
- apoptosis, autophagy, chickens, copper, copper sulfate, diet, dynein ATPase, gene expression regulation, genes, males, mammals, mitochondria, poisoning, rapamycin, testes, tissues, transmission electron microscopy, ultrastructure
- The aim of this study is to investigate whether copper (Cu) could induce testicular poisoning and influence the mitochondrial dynamics, apoptosis, and autophagy in chickens. For this purpose, thirty-six 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were divided into control group (C group) and test group (Cu group). The chickens were exposed to 0 (C group) or 300 mg/kg (Cu group) of copper sulfate (CuSO₄) for 30, 60, and 90 days. CuSO₄ was added into the basal diet to make supplements. Testis tissues were subjected to observation of ultrastructure and detection of testis-related indexes. The results indicated that in the test group, the levels of the pro-apoptotic genes were up-regulated and the levels of the anti-apoptotic genes were down-regulated; the levels of mitochondrial fission-related genes markedly increased, and the levels of mitochondrial fusion-related genes were highly decreased; autophagy-related gene (autophagy-associated gene 4B (ATG4B), dynein, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (LC3-II), ATG5, and beclin-1) levels were increased, while mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and LC3-I levels were declined. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that Cu induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which induced autophagy and apoptosis in chicken testes. In conclusion, CuSO₄ exposure can influence the mitochondrial dynamics balance and lead to mitochondria-initiated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, which triggers the testicular poisoning in chickens. What is more, there is a correlation among mitochondrial dynamics, apoptosis, and autophagy.