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Genetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A of Indian origin and detection of positive selection and recombination in leader protease- and capsid-coding regions

Nagendrakumar, S. B., Madhanmohan, M., Rangarajan, P. N., Srinivasan, V. A.
Journal of biosciences 2009 v.34 no.1 pp. 85-101
Bayesian theory, Foot-and-mouth disease virus, ancestry, capsid, coat proteins, convergent evolution, genetic analysis, mutation, phylogeny, proteinases, serotypes, vaccines, viruses, India
The leader protease (Lᵖʳᵒ) and capsid-coding sequences (P1) constitute approximately 3 kb of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We studied the phylogenetic relationship of 46 FMDV serotype A isolates of Indian origin collected during the period 1968–2005 and also eight vaccine strains using the neighbour-joining tree and Bayesian tree methods. The viruses were categorized under three major groups — Asian, Euro-South American and European. The Indian isolates formed a distinct genetic group among the Asian isolates. The Indian isolates were further classified into different genetic subgroups (<5% divergence). Post-1995 isolates were divided into two subgroups while a few isolates which originated in the year 2005 from Andhra Pradesh formed a separate group. These isolates were closely related to the isolates of the 1970s. The FMDV isolates seem to undergo reverse mutation or convergent evolution wherein sequences identical to the ancestors are present in the isolates in circulation. The eight vaccine strains included in the study were not related to each other and belonged to different genetic groups. Recombination was detected in the Lᵖʳᵒ region in one isolate (A IND 20/82) and in the VP1 coding 1D region in another isolate (A RAJ 21/96). Positive selection was identified at aa positions 23 in the Lᵖʳᵒ (P<0.05; 0.046*) and at aa 171 in the capsid protein VP1 (P<0.01; 0.003**).