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Bioaccessible trace metals in lip cosmetics and their health risks to female consumers
- Gao, Peng, Lei, Tingting, Jia, Liming, Yury, Badmatsybenov, Zhang, Zhaohan, Du, Yingqiu, Feng, Yujie, Xing, Baoshan
- Environmental pollution 2018 v.238 pp. 554-561
- Food and Drug Administration, antimony, average daily intake, bioavailability, cadmium, candy, chromium, chronic exposure, cobalt, college students, copper, cosmetics, females, gastrointestinal system, hydrochloric acid, in vitro studies, ingestion, lead, manganese, nickel, risk, toxic substances, women, United States
- Females can be exposed to toxic elements in lip cosmetics following ingestion. The bioaccessibility of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Sb and Pb in lip cosmetics (n = 32) were assessed via the dilute HCl extraction method, In Vitro Gastrointestinal protocol (IVG) and the United States Pharmacopeia Methodology (USPM), and then health risks were characterized. The total concentrations of trace metals (TMs) in lip cosmetics were in the range of 15.55–111.97 mg/kg (Mean: 60.99 mg/kg). Cu, Pb and Cr were the three major TMs and accounting for >75% of the total concentrations. Except Sb and Pb in 4/32 and 4/32 samples were higher than the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the United States) limits, the other TMs were lower than that limits. Only bioaccessible Pb in all samples significantly exceeded the FDA limit 0.1 mg/kg in candy. Using IVG or USPM might be preferable for evaluating the TMs exposure over HCl since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. The estimated average daily intake (ADI) of bioaccessible ∑TMs through lip cosmetics ingestion of career women and female college students were under safety level. The long-term exposure of bioaccessible TMs by lip cosmetics using would inevitably cause non-carcinogenic health risk. This is the first report on the in vitro tests used for evaluating bioaccessible TMs in lip cosmetics.