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Urinary bisphenol analogues and triclosan in children from south China and implications for human exposure
- Chen, Yi, Fang, Jianzhang, Ren, Lu, Fan, Ruifang, Zhang, Jianqing, Liu, Guihua, Zhou, Li, Chen, Dingyan, Yu, Yingxin, Lu, Shaoyou
- Environmental pollution 2018 v.238 pp. 299-305
- average daily intake, bisphenol A, bisphenol S, children, exposure pathways, gender, health hazards, products and commodities, triclosan, urine, China
- Bisphenols and triclosan (TCS) are widely used in consumer products. However, knowledge on human exposure to these anthropogenic chemicals has remained limited in China, especially for children. In this study, concentrations of seven bisphenols and TCS were determined in 283 urine samples collected from South China children aged between 3 and 11 years old. Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS) and TCS were frequently detected in urine samples, with a detection rate of 93%, 89%, and 95%, respectively. Urinary concentrations of Σ7BPs (the sum concentrations of the seven bisphenols) ranged from 0.43 to 31.5 μg/L, with a median value of 0.91 μg/L, while TCS concentrations ranged from < limit of quantification to 21.9 μg/L (median: 0.21 μg/L). BPA was the predominant analogue (median: 0.35 μg/L), accounting for 49.8% of Σ7BPs. The urinary BPA concentrations in children from Guangzhou were significantly greater than those from Shenzhen. Correlation analysis suggested that multiple exposure sources to South China children likely existed for BPA, BPS, and TCS. Age, but not gender, was negatively associated with urinary residues of BPA and BPS (p < 0.05) and positively with TCS concentrations (p < 0.05). The estimated daily intake of Σ7BPs (23.9 ng/kg bw/day) or TCS (5.63 ng/kg bw/day) was below the tolerant reference dose of BPA, indicating no considerable health hazard to South China children.