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Enhancing phytoextraction of potentially toxic elements in a polluted floodplain soil using sulfur-impregnated organoclay

Shaheen, Sabry M., Wang, Jianxu, Swertz, Ann-Christin, Feng, Xinbin, Bolan, Nanthi, Rinklebe, Jörg
Environmental pollution 2019 v.248 pp. 1059-1066
Pisum sativum, Zea mays, alluvial soils, bioavailability, cadmium, carbonates, chromium, copper, corn, greenhouse experimentation, iron oxides, lead, manganese oxides, nickel, organic carbon, pH, peas, phytoaccumulation, pollutants, polluted soils, risk, roots, shoots, sulfur, toxic substances, zinc
Enhancing metals phytoextraction using gentile mobilizing agents might be an appropriate approach to increase the phytoextraction efficiency and to shorten the phytoremediation duration. The effect of sulfur-impregnated organoclay (SIOC) on the redistribution of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) among their geochemical fractions in soils and their plant uptake has not yet been studied. Therefore, our aim is to investigate the role of different SIOC application doses (1%, 3% and 5%) on operationally defined geochemical fractions (soluble + exchangeable; bound to carbonate; manganese oxide; organic matter; sulfide; poorly- and well-crystalline Fe oxide; and residual fraction) of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and their accumulation by pea (Pisum sativum) and corn (Zea mays) in a greenhouse pot experiment using a polluted floodplain soil. The SIOC caused a significant decrease in soil pH, and an increase in organic carbon and total sulfur content in the soil. The addition of SIOC increased significantly the soluble + exchangeable fraction and bioavailability of the metals. The SIOC leads to a transformation of the residual, organic, and Fe-Mn oxide fractions of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn to the soluble + exchangeable fraction. The SIOC addition increased the potential mobile (non-residual) fraction of Cr and Pb. The SIOC increased the sulfide fraction of Cr, Ni, and Zn, while it decreased the same fraction for Cd, Cu, and Pb. The effect of SIOC on the redistribution of metal fractions increased with enhancing application dosages. Pea accumulated more metals than corn with greater accumulation in the roots than shoots. Application of the higher dose of SIOC promoted the metals accumulation by roots and their translocation to shoots of pea and corn. Our results suggest the potential suitability of SIOC for enhancing the phytomanagement of PTEs polluted soils and reducing the environmental risk of these pollutants.