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Bioaccumulation of microcystins in seston, zooplankton and fish: A case study in Lake Zumpango, Mexico

Zamora-Barrios, Cesar Alejandro, Nandini, S., Sarma, S.S.S.
Environmental pollution 2019 v.249 pp. 267-276
Chirostoma, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Daphnia, Microcystis, Oreochromis niloticus, Planktothrix agardhii, bioaccumulation, case studies, ecotoxicology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, eutrophication, fish, food chain, homogenization, lakes, methanol, microcystins, monitoring, mortality, particulates, risk, secondary metabolites, seston, surface water, toxicity, zooplankton, Mexico
Cyanotoxins from toxic blooms in lakes or eutrophic reservoirs are harmful to several organisms including zooplankton, which often act as vectors of these secondary metabolites, because they consume cyanobacteria, bioaccumulate the cyanotoxins and pass them on along the food chain. Microcystins are among the most commonly found cyanotoxins and often cause zooplankton mortality. Although cyanobacterial blooms are common and persistent in Mexican water bodies, information on the bioaccumulation of cyanotoxins is scarce. In this study we present data on the bioaccumulation of cyanotoxins from Planktothrix agardhii, Microcystis sp., Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Dolichospermum planctonicum blooms in the seston (suspended particulate matter more than 1.2 μm) by zooplankton and fish (tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and mesa silverside (Chirostoma jordani) samples from Lake Zumpango (Mexico City). The cyanotoxins were extracted from the seston, zooplankton and fish tissue by disintegration using mechanical homogenization and 75% methanol. After extraction, microcystins were measured using an ELISA kit (Envirologix). Concentration of microcystins expressed as equivalents, reached a maximum value of 117 μg g−1 on sestonic samples; in zooplankton they were in the range of 0.0070–0.29 μg g−1. The dominant zooplankton taxa included Acanthocyclops americanus copepodites, Daphnia laevis and Bosmina longirostris. Our results indicate twice the permissible limits of microcystins (0.04 μg kg−1 d−1) for consumption of cyanobacterial products in whole fish tissue of Chirostoma jordani. The data have been discussed with emphasis on the importance of regular monitoring of water bodies in Mexico to test the ecotoxicological impacts of cyanobacterial blooms and the risk that consumption of products with microcystins could promote.