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Bioconcentration and tissue distribution of shorter and longer chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Effects of perfluorinated carbon chain length and zebrafish protein content
- Wen, Wu, Xia, Xinghui, Zhou, Dong, Wang, Haotian, Zhai, Yawei, Lin, Hui, Chen, Jian, Hu, Diexuan
- Environmental pollution 2019 v.249 pp. 277-285
- Danio rerio, aquatic animals, bioaccumulation factor, blood, blood-brain barrier, brain, liver, muscles, perfluoroalkyl acids, perfluorocarbons, pollutants, protein content, tissue distribution, tissues
- Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a class of emerging pollutants. However, the bioconcentration and tissue distribution of shorter chain PFAAs in aquatic animals are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of perfluorinated carbon chain length of PFAAs and protein content of tissues on the bioconcentration and tissue distribution of both shorter chain PFAAs (linear C-F = 3–6) and longer chain PFAAs (linear C-F = 7–11) in zebrafish. The results showed that the uptake rate constants (ku) and the bioconcentration factors (BCFss) of the shorter chain PFAAs (0.042–32 L·kgww−1·d−1 and 0.12–24 L·kgww−1, respectively) in tissues were significantly lower than those of the longer chain PFAAs (2.8–1.4 × 103 L·kgww−1·d−1 and 9.7–1.9 × 104 L·kgww−1, respectively). Moreover, the concentrations of both longer and shorter chain PFAAs were lowest in the muscle where the protein content was lowest, and they were highest in blood and liver where the protein content was highest among tissues except brain. The protein content of the brain was higher than that of the liver but the concentrations of PFAAs in the brain were significantly lower than those in the liver because of the blood-brain barrier. In addition, the ovary/blood and brain/blood ratios of concentrations for the shorter chain PFAAs were lower than those for the longer chain PFAAs. Generally, both log ku and log BCFss showed a significantly positive correlation with either perfluorinated carbon number of PFAAs or protein content of tissues (P < 0.05). Further nonlinear surface fitting revealed that the effect of perfluorinated carbon number was more significant than protein content on the PFAA bioconcentration in zebrafish tissues. These results suggest that there are differences in the bioconcentration and tissue distribution between longer and shorter chain PFAAs and the shorter chain PFAAs seem to be safe compared with the longer chain PFAAs.