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Selective adsorption and irreversible fixation behavior of cesium onto 2:1 layered clay mineral: A mini review

Park, Sang-Min, Alessi, Daniel S., Baek, Kitae
Journal of hazardous materials 2019 v.369 pp. 569-576
X-ray absorption spectroscopy, accidents, adsorption, cation exchange capacity, cesium, fractionation, illite, weathering
In this study, we reviewed the selective adsorption and irreversible fixation of cesium (Cs+) on clay minerals. The selective adsorption of Cs+ results from reactions with frayed edge sites (FES) of clay minerals. The content of FES is about 0.1–2.0% of the total cation exchange capacity (CEC). The fractionation of Cs+ in actual accident sites mainly exists as a residue, which is important because it is closely related to the strong binding between Cs+ and soils. Cs+ adsorbed onto FES can move into the deeper interlayer via weathering processes, thereby Cs+ can be irreversibly fixed in the interlayer of non-expanding 2:1 layered clay mineral. Additionally, Cs+ can be adsorbed in the interlayer of the expanding clay mineral and can be fixed by interlayer collapse. For this reason, Cs+ adsorption onto FES is defined as ‘selective adsorption’ subsequent sorption in the interlayer as ‘irreversible fixation’. Furthermore, the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis can confirm that Cs+ bound to illite is coordinated with the outer surface (OOS) and interlayer surface oxygens (OIS) through FES or interlayer sites. Through these processes, Cs+ is adsorbed selectively onto FES, while Cs+ can subsequently move into the interlayer and become more strongly fixed.