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Role and mechanism of homocysteine in affecting hepatic protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B

Liu, Ping, Huang, Jin, Zhong, Liangwei
Biochimica et biophysica acta 2019 v.1863 no.5 pp. 941-949
NADP (coenzyme), RNA interference, Western blotting, glucose, hepatocytes, homocysteine, insulin, insulin receptors, liquid chromatography, phosphorylation, precipitin tests, tandem mass spectrometry, thiols, thioredoxins
Elevated homocysteine is epidemiologically related to insulin resistance. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of insulin signaling. However, the effect of homocysteine on PTP1B remains unclear.S-homocysteinylated PTP1B was identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The ability of thioredoxin system to recover active PTP1B from S-homocysteinylated PTP1B was confirmed by RNA interference. To address the mechanism for homocysteine to affect PTP1B activity, we performed 5-IAF insertion, activity assays, Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation and glucose uptake experiments.The thiol-containing form of homocysteine (HcySH) suppressed phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β subunit, but enhanced PTP1B activity. This phenomenon was partially related to the fact that HcySH promoted PTP1B expression. Although the disulfide-bonded form of homocysteine (HSSH) modified PTP1B to form an inactive S-homocysteinylated PTP1B, HcySH-induced increase in the activities of cellular thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, components of thioredoxin system, could recover active PTP1B from S-homocysteinylated PTP1B. Thioredoxin system transferred electrons from NADPH to S-homocysteinylated PTP1B, regenerating active PTP1B in vitro and in hepatocytes. The actions of HcySH were also related with decrease in hepatic glucose uptake.The effect of HcySH/HSSH on PTP1B activity depends, at least partially, on the ratio of active PTP1B and S-homocysteinylated PTP1B. High HcySH-induced an increase in thioredoxin system activity is beneficial to de-S-homocysteinylation and is good for PTP1B activity.Our data provide a novel insight into post-translational regulation of PTP1B, and expand the biological functions of thioredoxin system.