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Transcriptome modulation by in ovo delivered Lactobacillus synbiotics in a range of chicken tissues

Dunislawska, A., Slawinska, A., Bednarczyk, M., Siwek, M.
Gene 2019 v.698 pp. 27-33
Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, RNA, bioactive compounds, broiler chickens, cockerels, computer software, eggs, galactooligosaccharides, gene expression, genes, immune response, intestinal microorganisms, jejunum, liver, metabolism, prebiotics, probiotics, raffinose, signal transduction, spleen, tonsils, transcriptome, transcriptomics
Synbiotics are the bioactive compounds that synergistically combine effects of prebiotics and probiotics. In poultry, synbiotics can be used to reprogram animal's intestinal microbiota upon perinatal in ovo injection on day 12 of eggs incubation. Optimally composed synbiotic delivered in ovo efficiently stimulates the host's intestinal microflora, which in turn exerts beneficial effects on the host and improves its physiological functions. The aim of the study was to estimate long-term changes in the chicken transcriptome after a single in ovo administration of two different synbiotics. On day 12 of eggs incubation, 5850 eggs of broiler chicken were distributed to experimental groups and injected with synbiotic 1 (S1)- Lactobacillus salivarius with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) or synbiotic 2 (S2)– Lactobacillus plantarum with raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO). On day 21 post-hatching cockerels were sacrificed and immunological (cecal tonsils and spleen), intestinal (jejunum) and metabolic (liver) tissues were collected (n = 5). Isolated RNA served as a template for the whole-transcriptome analysis using GeneChip Chicken Gene 1.1. ST Array Strip (Affymetrix). Data analysis was performed using Affymetrix Expression Console and Transcriptome Analysis Console software, Venn diagrams, DAVID and CateGOrizer. The highest number of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEG) was detected in cecal tonsils (160 DEG) after S1 in ovo injection, and in liver (159 DEG) after S2 injection. The influence of S1 on transcriptome modulation was demonstrated by a strong activation of the genes taking part in the pathways related to metabolism and immune response in cecal tonsils. S2 injection led to modulation of the gene expression associated with metabolic and developmental signaling pathways in the liver. Obtained results let us conclude that synbiotics delivered in ovo have significant impact on chicken transcriptome and their effect depends on the composition of the bioactive compound.