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Mitigation of arsenic in rice grains by polishing and washing: Evidencing the benefit and the cost
- Pedron, Tatiana, Segura, Fabiana Roberta, Paniz, Fernanda Pollo, de Moura Souza, Felipe, dos Santos, Mauro Coelho, de Magalhães Júnior, Ariano Martins, Batista, Bruno Lemos
- Journal of cereal science 2019 v.87 pp. 52-58
- Codex Alimentarius, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, pH, rice, temperature, washing, zinc
- Arsenic (As) mitigation strategies are necessary to decrease As in rice grains. Polishing and washing are important methods to achieve the Codex Alimentarius limits for As. This investigation evaluated a procedure for As-mitigation by removing it from rice grains by polishing and washing for potential implementation in food-industries. It was evaluated the conditions of washing-time, rice:water ratio, temperature, and pH, in which the values were 8 h, 1:2, 35 °C, and 6, respectively. The benefits of the processes, polishing and polishing+washing, were the removal of 13.8/40.5%, 15.6/37.9%, and 41.3/54.6% of As in grains polished during 20s, 40s, and 60s, respectively. Approximately 38.8% of As was removed from the husked grains by simple washing. The As-speciation showed a maximum elimination of inorganic As for grains washed+polished 60s. Regarding Cd and Pb, by comparing non-washed husked grains and washed+polished 60s, the removals were 17% and 66%, respectively. The cost of this procedure was the removal of essential elements. Approximately 83%, 95%, 78%, 58%, 45%, and 33% of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Se, respectively, were removed. Therefore, it is necessary a balance between benefit and cost when using polishing and washing for As-mitigation, especially for populations that have high rice consumption.