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Bioinspired synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid nanoflowers for robust enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay

Tang, Qiaorong, Zhang, Lianhua, Tan, Xiaofeng, Jiao, Lei, Wei, Qin, Li, He
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2019 v.133 pp. 94-99
C-reactive protein, anions, antibodies, biomarkers, biomimetics, detection limit, electrochemistry, immunoassays, immunosensors, mineralization, models, molybdates, nanoflowers, phosphates, surface area
Protein-inorganic nanoflowers have been extensively used for sensing and biosensing applications by virtue of the signal enhancement of protein component---enzyme. Can the inorganic component of protein-inorganic nanoflowers be employed to amplify signal transducing for enzyme-free detection? In this work, a new kind of BSA-antibodies-copper phosphate hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-Ab2-Cu3(PO4)2) has been prepared by one-pot biomimetic mineralization process as signal enhancer for enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay. C-reactive protein (CRP) has been chosen as a model biomarker. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first trial using the inorganic component---phosphate ions of BSA-Ab2-Cu3(PO4)2 for transducing electrochemical readout, which features the following advantages: (1) the three-dimensional hierarchical porous nanoflower morphology with a high specific surface area could load more antibodies, and BSA for blocking non-specific sites, greatly increasing the sensitivity of the fabricated immunosensors, (2) the Cu3(PO4)2 hybrid nanoflowers can supply a huge amount of phosphate anions to react with molybdate yielding molybdophosphate precipitates and generating redox currents for more robust enzyme-free electrochemical signal readout. The fabricated immunosensor has exhibited good detection performance with a linear range of 5 pg/mL–1 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 1.26 pg/mL. Moreover, our method has presented good feasibility for clinical sample analysis.