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A feasibility study on the pilot scale manufacture of fresh cheese from skim milk retentates without acid whey production: Effect of calcium content on bitterness and texture

Schäfer, Johannes, Sebald, Karin, Dunkel, Andreas, Hofmann, Thomas, Rosenthal, Ines, Schuster, Regina, Atamer, Zeynep, Hinrichs, Jörg
International dairy journal 2019 v.93 pp. 72-80
bitterness, calcium, feasibility studies, fermentation, fresh cheeses, microfiltration, peptides, skim milk, texture, whey
The sensory and structural properties of fresh cheeses (8.0%, w/w, protein) made from fermented skim milk retentates [concentrated-fermented (CoF) fresh cheese] with different calcium-protein ratios (Ca:Prot; 15.9–36.6 mg g−1) by means of pilot plant scale microfiltration (MF) and MF in the diafiltration (DF) mode without acid whey (AW) production were characterised. Calcium reduction reduced the bitterness level significantly (by 53.4%) and the bitter peptide content (by ≈33%) of the CoF fresh cheese after ≤ 1 week of storage; however, storage for ≥ 2 weeks resulted in an increase of both bitterness and bitter peptide content, and quantitatively changed the peptide pattern, possibly due to lack of thermisation. Fresh cheese with a lower bitterness level can be successfully manufactured, while avoiding AW production, if the Ca:Prot of the milk retentate is decreased to ≤15.9 mg g−1 (calcium content = 1240 mg kg−1 at 7.81%, w/w, protein) prior to fermentation.