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The conservation efficacy of coastal wetlands in China based on landscape development and stress

Guo, Ziliang, Zhang, Manyin
Ocean & coastal management 2019 v.175 pp. 70-78
coastal zone management, coasts, conservation areas, ecosystem services, gross domestic product, land use, landscapes, population density, population growth, socioeconomic development, wetland conservation, wetlands, China, Yellow Sea
The coastal zone of China contains extensive coastal wetlands but it is also one of the most densely populated areas. Rapid changes of land use pattern associated with socio-economic development in the coastal zone have had tremendous impacts on the health of coastal wetlands and their provision of ecological services. In this study, we used a landscape development intensity index and landscape stress index to evaluate the conservation efficacy of the coastal zone and coastal protected areas along the coastline of China from 1990 to 2015. We then analyzed the impact of population density and gross domestic product (GDP) on landscape development intensity. The results showed that landscape development intensity in coastal zone increased over the 25 year period, but the growth rate of landscape development intensity and landscape stress slowed between 2005 and 2015. Higher levels of landscape development intensity were widespread in the coastal zone of northern China compared with southern China, and the coastal zones of the Huanghai Sea and the Bohai Sea were the focus of coastal wetlands conservation in mainland China. A number of coastal protected areas, including 33 coastal national nature reserves and 67 national special marine reserves, have been established in mainland China, protecting 16.80% of the coastline. Coastal wetlands have been effectively protected to some extent by building these protected areas, with results showing lower landscape development intensity. The conservation efficacy of coastal wetlands as a whole was affected by population expansion and GDP, but the effects were not necessarily all negative. A higher population density or GDP did not necessarily lead to stronger landscape development intensity in local areas.