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Heat-killed Bacillus sp. SJ-10 probiotic acts as a growth and humoral innate immunity response enhancer in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

Hasan, Md Tawheed, Jang, Won Je, Lee, Bong-Joo, Kim, Kang Woong, Hur, Sang Woo, Lim, Sang Gu, Bai, Sungchul C., Kong, In-Soo
Fish & shellfish immunology 2019 v.88 pp. 424-431
Bacillus (bacteria), Paralichthys olivaceus, Streptococcus iniae, blood chemistry, dietary supplements, fish feeding, flounder, genes, immune response, innate immunity, interleukin-10, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, liver, lysozyme, microvilli, probiotics, protein efficiency ratio, superoxide dismutase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, weight gain
Investigations were carried out to evaluate and quantify the effects of dietary supplementation with heat-killed (HK) Bacillus sp. SJ-10 (BSJ-10) probiotic (1 × 108 CFU g−1) on the growth and immunity of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Flounder (averagely 9.64 g) were divided into two groups, and fed control and HK BSJ-10 (HKBSJ-10)-inoculated diets for 8 weeks. Investigations were carried out on growth and feed utilizations, innate immunity, serum biochemical parameters, microvilli length, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and IL-10) transcriptions. Compared to control, HKBSJ-10 diet significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced weight gain and protein efficiency ratio, 1.17 and 1.11 folds respectively. Humoral innate immune parameters, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase in treatment group were also elevated by 1.34 and 1.16 folds. Similarly, an increased (P < 0.05) relative expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 were recorded in liver (2.71, 3.38, and 4.12 folds respectively), and gill (2.08, 1.98, and 1.81 folds respectively) than that of controls. Moreover, after challenge with Streptococcus iniae (1 × 108 CFU mL−1), the HKBSJ-10-fed group exhibited significantly higher protection (P < 0.05) against streptococcosis compared to controls, validating the observed changes in immune parameters and induction on the cytokine-encoding genes. Therefore, HKBSJ-10 increases growth, modulates innate immune parameters, and protects olive flounders against streptococcosis.