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The role of sodA and sodB in Aeromonas hydrophila resisting oxidative damage to survive in fish macrophages and escape for further infection

Zhang, Meimei, Qin, Yingxue, Huang, Lixing, Yan, Qingpi, Mao, Leilei, Xu, Xiaojin, Wang, Suyun, Zhang, Mengmeng, Chen, Liwei
Fish & shellfish immunology 2019 v.88 pp. 489-495
Aeromonas hydrophila, bacteria, bacterial growth, fish, immunology, macrophages, oxidative stress, paraquat, pathogens, reactive oxygen species, survival rate
Several bacteria have been defined as extracellular pathogens; however, in recent years, it has been confirmed that they have the ability to survive and escape the attack of host phagocytes, thus causing further infection. Previous studies have shown that Aeromonas hydrophila could survive in fish macrophages; however, the mechanism remains unknown. In this study, sodA and sodB of the strain A. hydrophila B11 were stable silenced by shRNA. The survival rates of intracellular sodA-RNAi and sodB-RNAi decreased by 91.8% and 74.9% and the immune escape rates decreased by about 32% and 92% respectively. At the same time, reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fish macrophages that phagocytosed sodA-RNAi and sodB-RNAi increased by 40% and 32.6%, respectively, compared to those of macrophages that phagocytosed the wild-type strain. Compared to sodA, the expression of sodB predominates in A. hydrophila without oxidative stress; however, when exposed to oxidative stress, the magnitude of up-regulation of sodA expression is significantly higher than that of sodB. With increased of methyl viologen concentration, the survival rates of sodA-RNAi and sodB-RNAi were significantly decreased. The expressions of sodA and sodB did not affect the growth of A. hydrophila without oxidative stress, but the inhibition of sodA and sodB expression led to a slight decrease in bacterial growth under oxidative stress. These results indicated that (1) sodA and sodB play an important role in the process of bacterial resistance to ROS damage in host phagocytic cells, allowing them to survive or even escape fish macrophages; (2) the sodB expression was dominant in A. hydrophila without oxidative stress, the sodA expression was up-regulated more significantly under oxidative stress, and sodA and sodB contributed equally to the process of bacterial resistance to ROS; (3) sodA and sodB complement each other and cooperate in the process of intracellular survival of bacteria to protect against ROS damage.