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The phylogeny and evolutionary timescale of stoneflies (Insecta: Plecoptera) inferred from mitochondrial genomes

Ding, Shuangmei, Li, Weihai, Wang, Ying, Cameron, Stephen L., Murányi, Dávid, Yang, Ding
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 2019 v.135 pp. 123-135
Cretaceous period, Jurassic period, Nemouridae, mitochondrial genome, monophyly
Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial genomic data from 25 stonefly species recovered a well-supported tree resolving higher-level relationships within Plecoptera (stoneflies). The monophyly of both currently recognized suborders was strongly supported, concordant with previous molecular analyses of Plecoptera. The southern hemisphere suborder Antarctoperlaria formed two clades: Eustheniidae + Diamphipnoidae and Austroperlidae + Gripopterygidae; consistent with relationships proposed based on morphology. The largely northern hemisphere suborder Arctoperlaria also divided into two groups, Euholognatha and Systellognatha, each composed of the five families traditionally assigned to each infraorder (the placement Scopuridae by mt genome data remains untested at this time). Within Euholognatha, strong support for the clade Nemouridae + Notonemouridae confirmed the northern origin of the currently southern hemisphere restricted Notonemouridae. Other family level relationships within the Arctoperlaria differ from those recovered by previous morphology and molecular based analyses. A fossil-calibrated divergence estimation suggests the formation of two suborders dates back to the Jurassic (181 Ma), with subsequent diversification of most stonefly families during the Cretaceous. This result confirms the hypothesis that initial divergence between the suborders was driven by the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea into Laurasia and Gondwanaland (commencing 200 Ma and complete by 150 Ma).