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Phylogeny, phylogeography and hybridization of Caucasian barbels of the genus Barbus (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae)

Levin, Boris A., Gandlin, Alexander A., Simonov, Evgeniy S., Levina, Marina A., Barmintseva, Anna E., Japoshvili, Bella, Mugue, Nikolai S., Mumladze, Levan, Mustafayev, N.J., Pashkov, Andrey N., Roubenyan, Haikaz R., Shapovalov, Maxim I., Doadrio, Ignacio
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 2019
Barbus lacerta, Capoeta, basins, freshwater, hexaploidy, hybrids, intergeneric hybridization, lakes, mitochondrial DNA, monophyly, phylogeography, tetraploidy, Black Sea, Caspian Sea
Phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of six species of Caucasian barbels, the genus Barbus s. str., were studied based on extended geographic coverage and using mtDNA and nDNA markers. Based on 26 species studied, matrilineal phylogeny of the genus Barbus is composed of two clades – a) West European clade, b) Central and East European clade. The latter comprises two subclades: b1) Balkanian subclade, and b2) Ponto-Caspian one that includes 11 lineages mainly from Black and Caspian Sea drainages. Caucasian barbels are not monophyletic and subdivided for two groups. The Black Sea group encompasses species from tributaries of Black Sea including re-erected B. rionicus and excluding B. kubanicus. The Caspian group includes B. ciscaucasicus, B. cyri (with B. goktschaicus that might be synonymized with B. cyri), B. lacerta from the Tigris-Euphrates basin and B. kubanicus from the Kuban basin. Genetic structure of Black Sea barbels was influenced by glaciation-deglaciation periods accompanying by freshwater phases, periods of migration and colonization of Black Sea tributaries. Intra- and intergeneric hybridization among Caucasian barbines was revealed. In the present study, we report about finding of B. tauricus in the Kuban basin, where only B. kubanicus was thought to inhabit. Hybrids between these species were detected based on both mtDNA and nDNA markers. Remarkably, Kuban population of B. tauricus is distant to closely located conspecific populations and we consider it as relic. We highlight revealing the intergeneric hybridization between evolutionary tetraploid (2n=100) B. goktschaicus and evolutionary hexaploid (2n=150) Capoeta sevangi in Lake Sevan.