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The smut fungus Ustilago esculenta has a bipolar mating system with three idiomorphs larger than 500 kb

Liang, Syun-Wun, Huang, Yen-Hua, Chiu, Jian-Ying, Tseng, Hsin-Wan, Huang, Jin-Hsing, Shen, Wei-Chiang
Fungal genetics and biology 2019 v.126 pp. 61-74
Sphacelotheca reiliana, Ustilago segetum, Ustilago zeae, Zizania latifolia, bamboos, breeding, cultivars, genes, genetic variation, loci, mating systems, meiosis, plant pathogenic fungi, polymerase chain reaction, progeny, screening, sequence analysis, sexual development, smut diseases, vegetable crops, vegetables, Taiwan
Zizania latifolia Turcz., which is mainly distributed in Asia, has had a long cultivation history as a cereal and vegetable crop. On infection with the smut fungus Ustilago esculenta, Z. latifolia becomes an edible vegetable, water bamboo. Two main cultivars, with a green shell and red shell, are cultivated for commercial production in Taiwan. Previous studies indicated that cultivars of Z. latifolia may be related to the infected U. esculenta isolates. However, related research is limited. The infection process of the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis is coupled with sexual development and under control of the mating type locus. Thus, we aimed to use the knowledge of U. maydis to reveal the mating system of U. esculenta. We collected water bamboo samples and isolated 145 U. esculenta strains from Taiwan’s major production areas. By using PCR and idiomorph screening among meiotic offspring and field isolates, we identified three idiomorphs of the mating type locus and found no sequence recombination between them. Whole-genome sequencing (Illumina and PacBio) suggested that the mating system of U. esculenta was bipolar. Mating type locus 1 (MAT-1) was 552,895 bp and contained 44% repeated sequences. Sequence comparison revealed that U. esculenta MAT-1 shared high gene synteny with Sporisorium reilianum and many repeats with Ustilago hordei MAT-1. These results can be utilized to further explore the genomic diversity of U. esculenta isolates and their application for water bamboo breeding.