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Activation of the Endonuclease that Defines mRNA 3′ Ends Requires Incorporation into an 8-Subunit Core Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factor Complex

Hill, Chris H., Boreikaitė, Vytautė, Kumar, Ananthanarayanan, Casañal, Ana, Kubík, Peter, Degliesposti, Gianluca, Maslen, Sarah, Mariani, Angelica, von Loeffelholz, Ottilie, Girbig, Mathias, Skehel, Mark, Passmore, Lori A.
Molecular cell 2019 v.73 no.6 pp. 1217-1231.e11
X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, enzyme activation, enzyme activity, mass spectrometry, messenger RNA, proteins, yeasts
Cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF/CPSF) is a multi-protein complex essential for formation of eukaryotic mRNA 3ʹ ends. CPF cleaves pre-mRNAs at a specific site and adds a poly(A) tail. The cleavage reaction defines the 3ʹ end of the mature mRNA, and thus the activity of the endonuclease is highly regulated. Here, we show that reconstitution of specific pre-mRNA cleavage with recombinant yeast proteins requires incorporation of the Ysh1 endonuclease into an eight-subunit “CPFcore” complex. Cleavage also requires the accessory cleavage factors IA and IB, which bind substrate pre-mRNAs and CPF, likely facilitating assembly of an active complex. Using X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry, we determine the structure of Ysh1 bound to Mpe1 and the arrangement of subunits within CPFcore. Together, our data suggest that the active mRNA 3ʹ end processing machinery is a dynamic assembly that is licensed to cleave only when all protein factors come together at the polyadenylation site.