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Prevalence and multilocus genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting pigs in Ogun state, Nigeria

Akinkuotu, Olufemi Ambrose, Takeet, Michael Irewole, Otesile, Ebenezer Babatunde, Olufemi, Frederick, Greenwood, Spencer J., McClure, J. Trenton
Infection, genetics, and evolution 2019 v.70 pp. 53-60
Giardia lamblia, cattle, coproantigens, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, farms, genes, genetic variation, genotype, genotyping, glutamate dehydrogenase, goats, humans, intestines, loci, mixed infection, parasites, phylogeny, ribosomal RNA, sheep, swine, triose-phosphate isomerase, Nigeria
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal flagellated protozoan parasite that is infectious to humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. While varying prevalence rates have been reported in pigs worldwide, there are currently no published reports on the genotypes of Giardia infecting pigs in any African country. The present study is on the prevalence and genotypes of G. duodenalis in 209 pigs raised on four farms in Ogun State Nigeria. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, Giardia duodenalis coproantigens were detected on all farms and in 25.4% (53/209) of pigs sampled. However, there was no significant influence (p > 0.05) of age, sex and stool consistencies of the pigs on the distribution of the infection. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in all ELISA-positive samples, achieved by the amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and beta giardin (bg) genes, identified 14 and 37 assemblage B and E isolates respectively while mixed infection by both assemblages was recorded in two isolates. Novel nucleotide substitutions were identified in four assemblage B isolates at the ssu rRNA locus. Genetic diversity was observed among the assemblage B isolates after multiple alignment analyses of the gdh, tpi and bg sequences whereby sub-assemblages BII (n = 2), BIII (n = 9) and BIV (n = 3) were identified. The assemblage B isolates from pigs in this study were phylogenetically related to isolates from humans, marmoset and cattle while the assemblage E isolates were related to isolates from sheep, goats and cattle. These findings suggest that pigs in southwest Nigeria predominantly harbour G. duodenalis isolates that could be infectious to other animal species and to a lesser extent, isolates that may be of zoonotic importance.