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Distribution and characteristics of SGI1/PGI2 genomic island from Proteus strains in China

Xiao, Tao, Dai, Hang, Lu, Binghuai, Li, Zhenpeng, Cai, Hongyan, Huang, Zhenzhou, Kan, Biao, Wang, Duochun
Infection, genetics, and evolution 2019 v.70 pp. 123-130
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella, cephalosporins, genomic islands, humans, monitoring, multigene family, multiple drug resistance, phylogeny, plasmids, public health, resistance genes, China
The emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and Proteus genomic island (PGI) bearing P. mirabilis present a serious threat to public health. In this study, we screened 288 Proteus isolates recovered from seven provinces in China. Fourteen strains (4.9%) all belonged to P. mirabilis were positive for SGI1/PGI2, including twelve from clinical samples (5.3%) and two from food (3.3%). A Blastn search against GenBank and phylogenetic analyses identified eight different SGI1 variants and one PGI2 variant from the fourteen SGI1/PGI2 variants. All SGI1 variants shared a common backbone and harbored different resistance gene(s), except the sul1 gene at its multidrug-resistant (MDR) region. Among the variants, three novel SGI1 variants, designated as SGI1-PmCA11, SGI1-PmCA14 and SGI1-PmCA46, contained different gene cassettes, which were similar to sequences in plasmids or class 1 integrons of Klebsiella pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Moreover, one novel PGI2, designated as PGI2-PmCA72, had an identical gene cassette to the first class 1 integron from PGI2 (GenBank accession no. MG201402.1) in P. mirabilis, but varied due to missing, replaced, inserted and inverted gene clusters. The four novel SGI1/PGI2 variants contained the cmlA5, dfrA14, blaOXA-10, aadA15, blaOXA-1, catB3 and dfrA16 resistance genes, which have never been reported in SGI1/PGI2 variants. Phenotypically, all fourteen SGI1/PGI2-containing strains showed multidrug resistance. All except four strains were resistant to the first, or the second and/or-third generation cephalosporins. Considering the increasing number and the emergence of new SGI1/PGI2 variants, further surveillance is needed to prevent the spreading of the MDR genomic islands among Proteus isolates from human and food.