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Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) catechins and procyanidins: Gastrointestinal/colonic bioaccessibility, Caco-2 cell permeability and the impact of macronutrients

Mendes, Thaíse Maria Nogueira, Murayama, Yukihisa, Yamaguchi, Natsumi, Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues, Fontes, Luciana Cristina Brigatto, Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva, Tamura, Hirotoshi, Yonekura, Lina
Journal of functional foods 2019 v.55 pp. 352-361
Paullinia cupana, bioavailability, casein, catechin, epicatechin, human cell lines, humans, intestinal mucosa, oxidative stress, permeability, procyanidins, provenance, seeds, vegetable oil
Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) seeds are rich in flavan-3-ols (catechins) and reduce oxidative stress in humans. We determined the concentration and in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins in guaraná seeds from two geographical origins, and measured their Caco-2 permeability. The effect of macronutrients on catechins’ bioaccessibility and Caco-2 permeability was also evaluated. Guaraná seeds from southern Bahia and Maués contained, respectively, 30.0 and 26.8 mg catechin/g, 20.2 and 20.0 mg epicatechin/g, 3.7 and 3.8 mg procyanidin B1/g, and 3.3 and 4.9 mg procyanidin B2/g. Bioaccessibility ranged between 65 and 95% for catechin monomers and 50–140% for dimers. Casein inhibited bioaccessibility of catechin dimers, while vegetable oil improved bioaccessibility of total procyanidins. Guaraná catechin monomers and dimers were able to permeate through Caco-2 cell monolayers (Papp 0.31–0.35 × 10−6 cm/s) without effect from co-digested macronutrients. Guaraná seeds are a source of highly bioaccessible catechins, which can permeate the intestinal epithelium with negligible effect from macronutrients.