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Root system architecture influencing cadmium accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Meeinkuirt, Weeradej, Phusantisampan, Theerawut, Saengwilai, Patompong
International journal of phytoremediation 2019 v.21 no.1 pp. 19-26
Oryza sativa, cadmium, cultivars, field experimentation, human health, hydroponics, paddies, phytoremediation, plant breeding, pollution, rice, root systems, Mali
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in paddy fields affects human health because of the consumption of Cd-contaminated rice. In the current study, we demonstrated that variation in root system architecture (RSA) influenced Cd uptake by rice. Rice cultivars consisting of KDML105, Mali Dang, Pitsanulok2 and Niaw San-pah-tawng were assessed in hydroponics and mesocosms while KDML 105, Pitsanulok2, and RD53 were used in field experiments. In hydroponics, root number and root weight were positively correlated with Cd uptake. In mesocosms, we found that the effects of Cd on RSA depended on rice varieties. Among different rice varieties, Mali Dang consistently accumulated high concentration of Cd, while Niaw San-pah-tawng tended to accumulate much lower amount in its shoot in both hydroponics and mesocosms. Correlation analysis indicates that Cd concentrations in shoot was positively correlated with root weight (R² = 0.95), crown root number (R² = 0.74), and negatively correlated with root depth (R² = 0.86). In the field, Cd is most abundant at a depth of 10–20 cm. and root distribution influenced Cd uptake as evidenced by high root Cd content in the RD53 variety. We propose that low crown root number and deep RSA could be promising traits for selection and breeding for low Cd uptake rice.