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Field validation of phosphine efficacy on the first recorded resistant strains of Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium castaneum from the Czech Republic
- Aulicky, Radek, Stejskal, Vaclav, Frydova, Barbora
- Journal of stored products research 2019 v.81 pp. 107-113
- Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium castaneum, adults, eggs, fumigation, grain storage facilities, larvae, mortality, pests, phosphine, Czech Republic
- This study first estimated the current state of phosphine sensitivity (using a knock-down/KT100/Degesch kit) in Sitophilus granarius (23 strains) and Tribolium castaneum (8 strains) in Czech Republic grain stores. The resistance of S. granarius (21.7% resistant strains; coefficient of resistance KT100 ranged from 0.5 to 2.3 among strains) was substantially lower and less frequent than that of T. castaneum (87.5% resistant strains; coefficient of resistance KT100 ranged from 0.9 to 52.5 among strains). The phosphine efficacy of the laboratory and field (i.e., resistant) pest strains was validated during commercial fumigation when suboptimal tarpaulin sealing resulted in low-concentration phosphine exposure (Ct products ranged from 5.9 to 7.4 g*hr/m3). Although even low-dose fumigation led to 100% adult mortality of both laboratory and field strains of S. granarius and laboratory strains of T. castaneum, the mortality of the field strain of T. castaneum ranged from 47% to 95%. Larval emergence from the fumigated commodity samples with pest eggs was zero or near zero for laboratory strains, while 1.3–6.0 (S. granarius) and 63.7–80.00 (T. castaneum) field-strain larvae emerged per sample (100 g). This study shows that although a high proportion of the tested pest populations were still sensitive, several T. castaneum populations showed an elevated level of resistance that may decrease field fumigation efficacy, especially under suboptimal phosphine dosage conditions.