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The Arabidopsis glutathione transferases, AtGSTF8 and AtGSTU19 are involved in the maintenance of root redox homeostasis affecting meristem size and salt stress sensitivity

Horváth, Edit, Bela, Krisztina, Holinka, Botond, Riyazuddin, Riyazuddin, Gallé, Ágnes, Hajnal, Ádám, Hurton, Ágnes, Fehér, Attila, Csiszár, Jolán
Plant science 2019 v.283 pp. 366-374
Arabidopsis thaliana, fluorescent dyes, glutathione, glutathione transferase, green fluorescent protein, homeostasis, hydrogen peroxide, meristems, mutants, oxidation, redox potential, roots, salt stress, sodium chloride, stress response, superoxide anion
The tau (U) and phi (F) classes of glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes reduce the glutathione (GSH) pool using GSH as a co-substrate, thus influence numerous redox-dependent processes including hormonal and stress responses. We performed detailed analysis of the redox potential and reactive oxygen species levels in longitudinal zones of 7-day-old roots of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Col-0 wild type and Atsgtf8 and Atgstu19 insertional mutants. Using redox-sensitive cytosolic green fluorescent protein (roGFP2) the redox status of the meristematic, transition, and elongation zones was determined under control and salt stress (3-hour of 75 or 150 mM NaCl treatment) conditions. The Atgstu19 mutant had the most oxidized redox status in all root zones throughout the experiments. Using fluorescent dyes significantly higher superoxide radical (O2−) levels was detected in both Atgst mutants than in the Col-0 control. Salt treatment resulted in the highest O2− increase in the Atgstf8 root, while the amount of H2O2 elevated most in the case of Atgstu19. Moreover, vitality decreased in Atgstu19 roots more than in wild type under salt stress. Our results indicate that AtGSTF8 and especially the AtGSTU19 proteins function in the root fine-tuning the redox homeostasis both under control and salt stress conditions.