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A systematic in silico prediction of gibberellic acid stimulated GASA family members: A novel small peptide contributes to floral architecture and transcriptomic changes induced by external stimuli in rice

Muhammad, Izhar, Li, Wen-Qiang, Jing, Xiu-Qing, Zhou, Meng-Ru, Shalmani, Abdullah, Ali, Muhammad, Wei, Xiao-Yong, Sharif, Rahat, Liu, Wen-Ting, Chen, Kun-Ming
Journal of plant physiology 2019 v.234-235 pp. 117-132
Arabidopsis, Liliopsida, abscisic acid, adenosine triphosphate, cadmium, cell walls, chromium, cold, drought, genes, gibberellic acid, heat stress, hormones, messenger RNA, microarray technology, panicles, peptides, phylogeny, plant development, plant growth, prediction, proteins, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, rice, seedlings, signal transduction, spikelets, transcription (genetics), transcriptomics
The GASA (GA-stimulated Arabidopsis) gene family is highly specific to plants, signifying a crucial role in plant growth and development. Herein, we retrieved 119 GASA genes in 10 different plant species in two major lineages (monocots and eudicots). Further, in the phylogenetic tree we classified these genes into four well-conserved subgroups. All the proteins contain a conserved GASA domain with similar characteristics and a highly specific 12-cysteine residue of the C-terminus position. According to the global microarray data and qRT-PCR based analysis, the OsGASA gene family was dominantly expressed in the seedling and transition phase of floral stages. Despite this, OsGASA genes profoundly contribute to rice grain size and length, whereas the highest abundance of transcript level was noticed in stage-2 (Inf 6, 3.0-cm-long spikelet) and stage-3 (Inf 7, 5.0-cm-long spikelet) under GA treatment during panicle formation. Additionally, the maximum expression level of these genes was recorded in response to GA and ABA in young seedlings. Further, in response to abiotic stresses, OsGASA1/8/10 was up- regulated by salt, OsGASA2/5/7 by drought, OsGASA3/6 by cold, and OsGASA4/9 by heat stress. With the exception of OsGASA4, the higher transcription levels of all the other GASA genes were induced by Cd and Cr metal stresses (8–10 fold changes) at various time points. Finally, the GO ontology analysis of GASAs revealed the biological involvement in the GA-mediated signaling pathway and abiotic stresses. Prominently, most of these proteins are localized in cellular components such as the cell wall and extracellular region, where the molecular functions such as ATP binding and protein binding were observed. These results imply that GASAs are significantly involved in rice panicle developmental stages, responses to external stimuli, and hormones.