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Distribution of nutrient and toxic elements in brown and polished rice

Jo, Gyuhan, Todorov, Todor I.
Food chemistry 2019 v.289 pp. 299-307
arsenic, atomic absorption spectrometry, brown rice, cadmium, copper, endosperm, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, microwave treatment, molybdenum, nickel, nutrients, rice bran, selenium, staple foods, toxic substances, zinc
Rice is a staple food in many countries around the world and it is a source of not only the nutrients, but also toxic elements. In this study, we evaluated four degrees of polishing and determined the elemental content (P, S, K, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg, Pb) in brown rice, rice bran and the resulting white rice using microwave assisted decomposition followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. Additionally, individual rice grains at every polishing step were analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS to generate elemental distribution maps. While P, K, Mn and Fe were predominantly located in bran layer, S, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, and Hg were present in both the bran and endosperm. As the elemental distribution in the grain varies, polishing to produce white rice results in removal of different amounts of nutrient and toxic elements.