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Efficient physical extraction of active constituents from edible fungi and their potential bioactivities: A review

Sun, Yanan, Zhang, Min, Fang, Zhongxiang
Trends in food science & technology 2019
active ingredients, antioxidants, bioactive properties, consumer acceptance, edible fungi, electric field, energy efficiency, foods, health services, medicine, microwave treatment, minerals, polysaccharides, product quality, proteins, solvents, supercritical fluid extraction, terpenoids, therapeutics, ultrasonic treatment, vitamins
Edible fungi are a great source of active constituents, including polysaccharides, proteins, terpenoids, minerals and vitamins. In particular, they have potential antitumor, antioxidant, immunological activity and could be applied for clinical disease treatment. Conventional extraction methods for active constituents usually involve organic solvents and may result in environmental problem and noticeable degradation of the constituents. The efficient physical extraction technologies have gained much more attention worldwide which can improve efficiency and reduce degradation of active ingredients.This review discusses the recent developments of efficient physical extraction technologies including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrahigh pressure-assisted extraction (UPE) and pulsed electric field extraction (PEF) for active constituents from edible fungi and presents a brief summary of their potential bioactivities.These technologies have been demonstrated to increase the extraction yield, improve product quality, and are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. It is expected that these efficient physical technologies will be gradually used in extraction of a variety of active constituents in the near future. Future research needs to consider varieties of further combined applications of physical technologies, which may allow a better maintenance of the functionality of active ingredients. The great potential of these extracted edible fungi active compounds could be used as the ingredients for health care medicine and foods. Meanwhile, consumer's acceptance, safety and legal aspects, and commercial availability of health products should also be taken into consideration in future studies.