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Carbohydrates, volatile and phenolic compounds composition, and antioxidant activity of calabura (Muntingia calabura L.) fruit

Pereira, Gustavo Araujo, Arruda, Henrique Silvano, de Morais, Damila Rodrigues, Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira, Pastore, Glaucia Maria
Food research international 2018 v.108 pp. 264-273
2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, Muntingia calabura, antioxidant activity, bioactive compounds, caffeic acid, catechin, color, energy, epigallocatechin, esterification, flavor, food industry, fructose, fruits, functional foods, gallic acid, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, glucose, glycosylation, naringenin, polyols, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, solid phase microextraction, tandem mass spectrometry, terpenoids, volatile compounds
Soluble carbohydrates, volatile and phenolic compounds from calabura fruit as well as its antioxidant activity were assessed. The low amount of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and similar amount of glucose and fructose allow us to classify the calabura berry as low-FODMAPs. The terpenes β-Farnesene and dendrolasin identified by SPME-GC-MS were the major volatile components. UHPLC-MS/MS analysis revelled gallic acid (5325 μg/g dw) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (171 μg/g dw) as the main phenolic compounds, followed by gentisic acid, gallocatechin, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid. In addition, gallic acid was found mainly in esterified (2883 μg/g dw) and insoluble-bound (2272 μg/g dw) forms. Free and glycosylated forms showed however the highest antioxidant activity due to occurrence of flavonoids (0.28–27 μg/g dw) in these fractions, such as catechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, naringenin, and quercetin. These findings clearly suggest that calabura is a berry with low energy value and attractive colour and flavour that may contribute to the intake of several bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. Furthermore, this berry have great potential for use in the food industry and as functional food.