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Red yeast rice fermentation with Bacillus subtilis B2 under blue light-emitting diodes increases antioxidant secondary products (Manuscript ID: BPBSE-18-0387)
- Elumalai, Punniyakotti, Park, Yool-Jin, Cho, Min, Shea, Patrick J., Oh, Byung-Taek
- Bioprocess and biosystems engineering 2019 v.42 no.4 pp. 529-539
- 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Bacillus subtilis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, antioxidant activity, bacteria, color, fermentation, flavonoids, fluorescence, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hydroxyl radicals, light emitting diodes, red yeast rice, seafoods, secondary metabolites, white light
- Light and bacteria can be used in combination to enhance secondary metabolite production during fermentation. Red yeast rice powder (RYRP) was inoculated with Bacillus subtilis (B2) isolated from freshwater seafood and incubated under light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of different colors (blue, green, red, white), fluorescent white light, and in darkness. Blue LED-mediated fermentation with B2 significantly enhanced production of phenolic compounds (68.4 ± 1 mg GAE/g DW) and flavonoids (51.7 ± 1 mg QE/g DW) compared to white light and darkness. Total antioxidant activity of RYRP extract after fermentation with B2 was > 77%; hydroxyl radical and superoxide scavenging were > 66%. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical scavenging activities were 51% and > 67%, respectively. Reducing power was approximately twice that of extract from RYRP without B2. FTIR analysis showed a high content of hydroxyl, nitrile and carboxylic groups in the extract. Derivatives of cinnamic, benzoic and phophinodithioic acid, and quinazolinone were identified by GC–MS. Findings show that fermenting RYRP with B. subtilis B2 under blue LEDs enhances production of secondary metabolites, which should have applications in industrial fermentation processes.