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Ecotoxic impact assessment of graphene oxide on lipid peroxidation at mitochondrial level and redox modulation in fresh water fish Anabas testudineus

Paital, Biswaranjan, Guru, Deeptimayee, Mohapatra, Priyadarsini, Panda, Biswajit, Parida, Nibedita, Rath, Sasmita, Kumar, Vinod, Saxena, Preeti S., Srivastava, Anchal
Chemosphere 2019 v.224 pp. 796-804
Anabas testudineus, catalase, environmental monitoring, freshwater fish, glutathione, glutathione transferase, graphene oxide, hemoglobin, industry, lipid peroxidation, lipid peroxides, liver, mitochondria, models, muscles, nanoparticles, nucleic acids, oxidative stress, protein content, redox reactions, superoxide dismutase, tissues, toxicity
Rapidly expanding nanoparticle industries are predicted to have turnover of ∼$173.95 billion by 2025, indicating an urgency to study their comprehensive toxicological impact(s). Toxic effects of Graphene Oxide (GO) on oxidative stress physiology especially at mitochondrial level and redox modulation in fish in general and in climbing perch Anabas testudineus is absent. Therefore, we have investigated the toxic impacts of sub lethal doses of GO on selected oxidative stress physiology markers, protein and nucleic acid content along with haematological parameters in A. testudineus. Discriminant function and correlation analyses suggest that GO had toxic effects on the fish, as revealed from the studied parameters. Liver and gill tissues had shown strong response to GO than muscle. Augmented gradual accumulation of cellular lipid peroxides, specifically in mitochondria, was noticed. Activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase was augmented in contrast to the lowered level of the reduced glutathione titre. Alleviated total red blood corpuscle count and haemoglobin titre was parallel with an augmentation of white blood corpuscle count under GO administration. The protein level was also alleviated gradually in liver with clear changes in tissue specific nucleic acid levels, which was reduced under GO treatment. Results of the present study indicate that GO induces oxidative stress in cell and mitochondria in fish. Therefore, very careful future practices of use of GO directly, or as cargo in environmental monitoring processes in aquatic models in vitro in general and Pisces model in particular are suggested.