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Microbial synergistic interactions for reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls

Wang, Shanquan, Chen, Chen, Zhao, Siyan, He, Jianzhong
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.666 pp. 368-376
Dehalococcoides mccartyi, Desulfovibrio, Methanosarcina, beneficial microorganisms, dechlorination, enzymes, metagenomics, microbial communities, polychlorinated biphenyls, synergism
Dehalococcoides usually work closely with other beneficial microorganisms for removal of halogenated organic compounds at contaminated sites. Traditional microbial cultivation is necessary but not enough to gain insights into key microbial populations and their interactions in complex communities. In this study, we cultivated and characterized two D. mccartyi strains (CG3 and SG1), and further revealed interspecies synergistic interactions in PCB-dechlorinating microbial communities via metagenomic analysis. Strain CG3 and SG1 originated from distinct geographic sites employ reductive dehalogenase CG3-RD11 (PcbA1-like) and SG1-RD28 (PcbA4/5-like), respectively, to catalyze chlorine-removal from PCBs. In their parent mixed cultures CG-3 and SG-1, as well as in previously enriched PCB-dechlorinating cultures CG-1, CG-4 and CG-5, Methanosarcina and Desulfovibrio were found as major non-dechlorinating populations which may play roles in mediating acetate- and H2-sources for D. mccartyi. They together form a stable microbial community for interspecies carbon- and electron-transfers to facilitate organohalide respiration of D. mccartyi, being confirmed in a synthetic microbial community consisting of the Dehalococcoides, Methanosarcina and Desulfovibrio. The results provide insights into which and how other microorganisms support D. mccartyi to dechlorinate PCBs, and suggest that Methanosarcina may play a larger role in PCB-dechlorinating communities than currently appreciated.