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Designing next generation of photon upconversion: Recent advances in organic triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion nanoparticles

Huang, Ling, Kakadiaris, Eugenia, Vaneckova, Tereza, Huang, Kai, Vaculovicova, Marketa, Han, Gang
Biomaterials 2019 v.201 pp. 77-86
biocompatibility, coordination polymers, droplets, dyes, image analysis, lipids, nanoparticles, optical properties, photons, photosensitizing agents, silica, therapeutics
Organic triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) nanoparticles have emerged as exciting therapeutic agents and imaging probes in recent years due to their unique chemical and optical properties such as outstanding biocompatibility and low power excitation density. In this review, we focus on the latest breakthroughs in such new version of upconversion nanoparticle, including their design, preparation, and applications. First, we will discuss the key principles and design concept of these organic-based photon upconversion in regard to the methods of selection of the related triplet TTA dye pairs (photosensitizer and emitter). Then, we will discuss the recent approaches s to construct TTA-UCNPs including silica TTA-UCNPs, lipid-coated TTA-UCNPs, polymer encapsulated TTA-UCNPs, nano-droplet TTA-UCNPs and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) constructed TTA-UCNPs. In addition, the applications of TTA-UCNPs will be discussed. Finally, we will discuss the challenges posed by current TTA-UCNP development.