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Advances in detection of fastidious bacteria: From microscopic observation to molecular biosensors

Mobed, Ahmad, Baradaran, Behzad, Guardia, Miguel de la, Agazadeh, Mohammad, Hasanzadeh, Mohammad, Rezaee, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh, Mosafer, Jafar, Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad, Hamblin, Michael R.
Trends in analytical chemistry 2019 v.113 pp. 157-171
bacteria, biosensors, culture media, diagnostic techniques, fastidious bacteria, microscopy, monitoring, nutrients, pathogen identification, staining
Identification of pathogens and diagnosis of infections are important health challenges, especially in the case of fastidious bacteria which are those difficult-to-grow. A fastidious organism is any organism that has a complex nutritional requirement. Additionally, a fastidious microorganism will only grow when specific nutrients are included in the culture medium. These bacteria can cause serious diseases whose detection and monitoring is critical in many cases. The oldest detection methods are based on simple microscopy observation and staining, after culture on selective growth media, but often do not provide a clear answer. Some new molecular approaches, such as DNA-based sequencing and antibody-antigen binding, are particularly promising in the case of fastidious bacteria. The objective of this review is to summarize the advantages of the use of biosensors as a modern diagnostic tool in microbiology for detecting fastidious bacteria.