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Environmental quality survey of an industrialized estuary and an Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve through a comparative appraisal of organic pollutants

Fontenelle, Fabiana Ribeiro, Taniguchi, Satie, da Silva, Josilene, Lourenço, Rafael Andre
Environmental pollution 2019 v.248 pp. 339-348
Crassostrea brasiliana, anthropogenic activities, bioavailability, conservation areas, environmental quality, estuaries, forests, hydrophobicity, industrialization, persistent organic pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sediments, surveys
An evaluation of the concentrations, bioavailability and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was performed in the industrialized estuary of Santos-São Vicente and in the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine lagoon system, considered an Atlantic forest biosphere reserve, using different approaches. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and bivalves (Crassostrea brasiliana) were deployed in both estuarine systems. Samples of water, suspended particulate material (PM), and sediments were also collected in these regions. The concentrations of PAHs in the water and in the PM from both estuarine systems were similar. In the sediment, the concentrations of PAHs and POPs were higher in the estuary of Santos-São Vicente than in the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine lagoon system. The accumulation of PAHs and POPs by the SPMD and C. brasiliana revealed that in both regions the bioavailability of contaminants was similar. Because of the hydrophobicity of the organic compounds, each matrix responded in a different manner to the source of the contaminants; C. brasiliana and sediment were primarily associated with 4–5 ring-PAHs that represent pyrolytic sources of hydrocarbons, whereas water and the SPMDs were correlated with the 2–3 ring-PAHs, which represent petrogenic sources. The PM produced an intermediated concentration among these compartments and was related to the concentration of POPs. Because no significant differences between the mean concentrations of contaminants in both studied regions were observed, anthropogenic effects currently impact the Cananéia-Iguape lagoon system, which was initially considered a pristine area.