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Enrofloxacin and Roundup® interactive effects on the aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis physiology

Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa, Tavares, Davi Santos, Richardi, Vinícius Sobrinho, Marques, Raizza Zorman, Wistuba, Natalia, Moreira de Brito, Júlio César, Soffiatti, Patrícia, Sant’Anna-Santos, Bruno Francisco, Navarro da Silva, Mário Antônio, Juneau, Philippe
Environmental pollution 2019 v.249 pp. 453-462
Elodea canadensis, active ingredients, antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, cytochrome P-450, enrofloxacin, glyphosate, macrophytes, metabolism, oxidative stress, phytotoxicity, synergism, water pollution
The co-occurrence of aquatic contaminants, such as antibiotics and herbicides, has motivated investigations into their interactive effects on aquatic organisms. We examined the combined effects of environmental concentrations of the antibiotic Enrofloxacin (Enro; 0–2.25 μg l−1) and Roundup OriginalDI (Roundup®; 0–0.75 μg active ingredient l−1), a glyphosate based-herbicide, on Elodea canadensis. Enro alone was not toxic, but the plants were highly sensitive to Roundup® whose toxicity is related to the induction of oxidative stress. The metabolism of Enro by plants into Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) was observed, and although former is not phytotoxic, oxidative events associated with Cipro generation were observed. The activity of cytochrome P450 was shown to be involved in Enro degradation in E. canadensis. As a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, Roundup® decreases Enro metabolism in plants. Enro, in turn, increases glyphosate uptake and toxicity, so that Enro and Roundup® have synergistic effects, disrupting the physiological processes of E. canadensis. Our results suggest E. canadensis as a potential candidate for the reclamation of Enro in contaminated waters, but not for Roundup® due to its high sensitivity to that herbicide.