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Puerariae Lobatae Radix with chuanxiong Rhizoma for treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke by remodeling gut microbiota to regulate the brain–gut barriers

Chen, Runzhi, Wu, Peng, Cai, Zheng, Fang, Yingying, Zhou, Hao, Lasanajak, Yi, Tang, Lan, Ye, Ling, Hou, Chuqi, Zhao, Jie
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 2019 v.65 pp. 101-114
Bacteroides, Collinsella, Enterococcus, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Megasphaera, Oscillospira, Proteus, absorption barrier, bacteria, blood viscosity, diamine oxidase, dysbiosis, hyperlipidemia, infarction, intestinal microorganisms, intestines, lactic acid, lipopolysaccharides, occludins, pathogens, permeability, rhizomes, risk, stroke
The combination of Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CXR) is commonly used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. This work aimed to clarify the mechanisms of their action in treating cerebral ischemic stroke from the perspective of gut microecology. The PLR and CXR combination effectively improved the neurological function, reduced the cerebral infarction and relieved the complications of cerebral ischemic stroke, including dyslipidemia, increased blood viscosity and thrombotic risk. Cerebral ischemic stroke triggered gut microbial disturbances by enriching pathogens and opportunistic microorganisms, including Bacteroides, Escherichia_Shigella, Haemophilus, Eubacterium_nodatum_group, Collinsella, Enterococcus, Proteus, Alistipes, Klebsiella, Shuttleworthia and Faecalibacterium. Cerebral ischemic stroke also increased the intestinal permeability, disrupted the gut barrier and caused intestinal microbial translocation. Occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 levels in the brain–gut barriers showed a high positive correlation. However, the combination remodeled the gut microecology by modulating endogenous bacteria whose effects may mitigate cerebral damage, such as Alloprevotella, Ruminococcaceae, Oscillospira, Lachnospiraceae_NK4B4_group, Akkermansia and Megasphaera, protected the brain–gut barriers by increasing claudin-5 and ZO-1 levels; and weakened the gut microbiota translocation by decreasing diamine oxidase, lipopolysaccharide and d-lactate. Although nimodipine effectively reduced the cerebral infarction, it did not relieve the gut microbiota dysbiosis and instead aggravated the gut barrier disruption and microbiota translocation. In conclusion, cerebral ischemic stroke caused gut microbiota dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability, disrupted the gut barrier and triggered gut microbiota translocation. The PLR and CXR combination was an effective treatment for cerebral ischemic stroke that relieved the gut microbiota dysbiosis and brain–gut barriers disruption.