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Point-of-care testing based on smartphone: The current state-of-the-art (2017–2018)

Liu, Junjie, Geng, Zhaoxin, Fan, Zhiyuan, Liu, Jian, Chen, Hongda
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2019 v.132 pp. 17-37
biomarkers, biopsy, biosensors, blood, colorimetry, electrochemistry, fluorescence, medical equipment, mobile telephones, organ-on-a-chip, point-of-care testing, saliva, sweat, tears, urine
Smartphone-based point-of-care testing (POCT) is rapidly emerging as a potential alternative to the traditional laboratory-based diagnostic testing owing to economic considerations and availability of medical equipment especially in resource-limited areas. A smartphone, combined with a biosensor and other related accessories, can offer high accuracy and sensitivity for medical testing. Moreover, the ubiquity of smartphone has propelled the development considerably, and accordingly research in recent years has shown promising progress in POCT. Here, we used samples (blood, urine, sweat, saliva and tears) of liquid biopsy as the standard for classification of smartphone-based POCT devices, considering that these samples contain multiple biomarkers of serious diseases. The colorimetric, fluorescent, brightfield, and electrochemical methods were utilized to examine these samples. We performed a comprehensive review of the development of smartphone-based POCT devices over the past two years (2017–2018) and assessed their relative merits and drawbacks. Based on the progress of POCT development, it illustrates that the various technological and economical requirements are urgent and tremendous. The tendency of high-quality, low-cost smartphone-based POCT devices, feature of biosensors (paper-based sensor, flexible device, microfluidic chip, et al.) currently widely used in POCT and recommendations of future works were summarized.