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Methylglyoxal – An emerging biomarker for diabetes mellitus diagnosis and its detection methods

Ramachandra Bhat, Lakshmishri, Vedantham, Srinivasan, Krishnan, Uma Maheswari, Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2019 v.133 pp. 107-124
advanced glycation end products, biomarkers, biosensors, capillary electrophoresis, diabetes mellitus, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, glucose, glycation, high performance liquid chromatography, hypertension, kidney diseases, models, oxidative stress, peripheral nervous system diseases, vascular tissues
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one among the supreme metabolic issues observed in history since 3000 BCE and has gained much interest recently due to the increasing number of diabetic cases every year. Glucose is considered as the most iconic biomarker for diabetes detection, and fluctuations in its levels are related to different stages of DM. However, methylglyoxal (MG) is evolving as a diabetes marker since it plays a significant role in biological processes Apart from DM, MG causes several metabolic irregularities like hypertension, neuropathy, nephropathy, oxidative stress. Besides, MG is a predominant precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which result in protein dysfunction, glycation of vascular tissues and aging. In this background, detection of MG has much importance, and the design of smart models is desirable. MG formation, detoxification, and its glycation effects have paved the way for the development of detection strategies which are described in detail here. The direct and indirect methods of MG measurement have been established in the past. At present, techniques like high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemical biosensors have been used to quantify MG present in the samples. Here, we have tried to correlate the function of MG and detection strategies to explain the major challenges posed towards implementation of easy, efficient and accurate standardization.