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Design of a multi-sensor platform for integrating extracellular acidification rate with multi-metabolite flux measurement for small biological samples

Obeidat, Yusra M., Cheng, Ming-Hao, Catandi, Giovana, Carnevale, Elaine, Chicco, Adam J., Chen, Thomas W.
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2019 v.133 pp. 39-47
acidification, aerobiosis, assisted reproductive technologies, biopsy, biosensors, carbonic acid, glucose, glycolysis, horses, immunology, instrumentation, lactic acid, mitochondria, models, monitoring, neoplasms, oxidative phosphorylation, oxygen consumption
Rates of cellular oxygen consumption (OCR) and extracellular acidification (ECAR) are widely used proxies for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolytic rate in cell metabolism studies. However, ECAR can result from both oxidative metabolism (carbonic acid formation) and glycolysis (lactate release), potentially leading to erroneous conclusions about metabolic substrate utilization. Co-measurement of extracellular glucose and lactate flux along with OCR and ECAR can improve the accuracy and provide better insight into cellular metabolic processes but is currently not feasible with any commercially available instrumentation. Herein, we present a miniaturized multi-sensor platform capable of real-time monitoring of OCR and ECAR along with extracellular lactate and glucose flux for small biological samples such as single equine embryos. This multiplexed approach enables validation of ECAR resulting from OXPHOS versus glycolysis, and expression of metabolic flux ratios that provide further insight into cellular substrate utilization. We demonstrate expected shifts in embryo metabolism during development and in response to OXPHOS inhibition as a model system for monitoring metabolic plasticity in very small biological samples. Furthermore, we also present a preliminary interference analysis of the multi-sensor platform to allow better understanding of sensor interference in the proposed multi-sensor platform. The capability of the platform is illustrated with measurements of ´╗┐multi-metabolites of single-cell equine embryos for assisted reproduction technologies. However, this platform has a wide potential utility for analyzing small biological samples such as single cells and tumor biopsies for immunology and cancer research applications.