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Chitosan hydrochloride/carboxymethyl starch complex nanogels as novel Pickering stabilizers: Physical stability and rheological properties
- Li, Xiao-Min, Xie, Qiu-Tao, Zhu, Jie, Pan, Yi, Meng, Ran, Zhang, Bao, Chen, Han-Qing, Jin, Zheng-Yu
- Food hydrocolloids 2019 v.93 pp. 215-225
- bioactive compounds, chitosan, confocal laser scanning microscopy, crosslinking, droplet size, droplets, emulsifiers, emulsions, environmental factors, hydrocolloids, ionic strength, loss modulus, models, modulus of elasticity, nanoparticles, oil-water interface, oils, pH, sodium chloride, stabilizers, starch
- The Pickering emulsions stabilized by chitosan hydrochloride - carboxymethyl starch (CHC-CMS) nanogels prepared through a facile covalent cross-linking method using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-1-carbodiimide) were investigated. The smallest mean size of CHC-CMS nanogels (378.2 nm) was obtained when the volume ratio of CHC: CMS was 2:1. The three-phase contract angle of CHC-CMS nanogels was 89.3°, which exhibited that the CHC-CMS nanogels could be used as effective Pickering emulsifiers. The effects of CHC-CMS nanogels concentration, oil phase fraction and environment factors viz, pH, ionic strength on the stability of emulsions were evaluated. An increase in CHC-CMS nanogels concentration led to a formation of smaller droplets, and the droplet size of Pickering emulsions was increased with the rise of oil phase fraction. The Pickering emulsions were highly stable at pH 6 and above. Increasing NaCl concentration was found to generate the aggregation of droplets. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the CHC-CMS nanogels could be adsorbed on the oil-water interface and form a densely packed layer at the surface of spherical oil droplets, which exhibited long-term stability for 3 months storage. Rheological results illustrated that all emulsions showed the typical pseudoplastic fluid characteristics and satisfied the Herschel-Bulkley model. The fact that the elastic modulus (G') was higher than the loss modulus (G″) in all the samples was indicative of the formation of an elastic gel-like structure. These results provided a potential way for Pickering emulsions preparations, which could be used as an effective delivery carrier of bioactives.