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Factors influencing energy requirements and CO2 emissions of households in Thailand: A panel data analysis

Meangbua, Onicha, Dhakal, Shobhakar, Kuwornu, John K.M.
Energy policy 2019 v.129 pp. 521-531
carbon, carbon dioxide, decision making, education, energy, energy policy, energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions, household surveys, households, regression analysis, socioeconomics, temperature, Thailand
Addressing consumption-based CO2 emissions, often called CO2 requirements, of households is key for developing a low carbon society. In this study, we analyzed the factors influencing these consumption-based CO2 emissions of households in Thailand. Household survey data, economic input-output tables, and panel data regression analyses for the years 1995–2010 were used to investigate the effects of socio-economic and demographic factors on energy and CO2 requirements of households in Thailand. The empirical results showed that socio-economic and demographic factors influenced the changes in energy and CO2 requirements. Temperature is the most significant factor influencing energy and CO2 requirements (a 1 °C increase in temperature resulted in a 200% increase in energy and CO2 requirements). Education is a key driving factor which positively influenced direct energy and CO2 requirements but negatively influenced the indirect energy and CO2 requirements. Our results provide important information for decision makers on how socio-economic and demographic factors influence consumption-based CO2 emissions of households in Thailand. Since most household-related energy policies in Thailand are voluntary in nature, the awareness, education and behavioral aspects need to be thought through more carefully when designing efficient policies towards low energy and low carbon society.