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Fatty acids and triacylglycerols in the mesocarp and kernel oils of maturing Costa Rican Acrocomia aculeata fruits

Lieb, Veronika M., Schex, Roland, Esquivel, Patricia, Jiménez, Víctor M., Schmarr, H.-G., Carle, Reinhold, Steingass, Christof B.
NFS journal 2019 v.14-15 pp. 6-13
Acrocomia aculeata, carbon, long chain fatty acids, maturity stage, mesocarp, oils, ripening, seeds, triacylglycerols
Total lipids, fatty acids, and triacylglycerols in mesocarp and kernels from Costa Rican Acrocomia aculeata fruits were characterized at three maturity stages. C16:0 and C18:1n9 were the most abundant fatty acids in the mesocarp. C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1n9 prevailed in the kernel oil. Comprehensive HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS and ESI-MSn analysis revealed 125 triacylglycerols with equivalent carbon numbers ranging between 28 and 52. Mesocarp oils mainly contained unsaturated triacylglycerols composed of long-chain fatty acids. In the kernel, high proportions of saturated triacylglycerols with medium-chain fatty acids were observed. Within the maturity stages assessed, fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions remained unaffected by ripening. Total lipids in the mesocarp increased from 12.1 to 23.4% with progressing maturity, whereas those in the kernel constantly ranged between 54.1 and 56.1%. For the recovery of A. aculeata oil, utilization of all fruits in a bunch at progressed maturity is possible without affecting the composition of its major lipid fractions.