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Anatomy, baseline characteristics, and procedural outcome of patent ductus arteriosus in German Shepherd dogs
- Wesselowski, Sonya, Saunders, Ashley B., Gordon, Sonya G.
- Journal of veterinary internal medicine 2019 v.33 no.2 pp. 471-477
- German Shepherd, arrhythmia, dogs, echocardiography, females, image analysis, medical records, patent ductus arteriosus, planning, signs and symptoms (animals and humans)
- BACKGROUND: German Shepherd dogs (GSD) are predisposed to developing patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and are reportedly prone to type III (tubular) PDA anatomy. Dogs with type III anatomy are not considered favorable candidates for device‐based intervention. OBJECTIVE: To describe the PDA anatomy, baseline characteristics, and procedural outcome of GSD with PDA. ANIMALS: Twenty‐eight client‐owned GSD. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of 28 GSD diagnosed with PDA that underwent surgical ligation or transcatheter device closure between 2007 and 2017. RESULTS: German Shepherd dogs with PDA often presented with clinical signs (50%), concurrent congenital heart disease (35.7%), and arrhythmias (29%). Dogs were typically mature at presentation (median age, 12.1 months) and evenly distributed by sex (57% female). The PDA anatomy was classified in 24 of 28 GSD, with type II anatomy being most common (21/24). Three dogs had unusual anatomy (type IV in 1, type V in 2). Median minimal ductal diameter (MDD) in this population was larger than previously reported in a mixed population and ranged between 4.4 and 4.9 mm depending upon imaging modality. Successful closure was achieved using an Amplatz canine duct occluder (ACDO) in 22 dogs or by surgical ligation in 6 dogs. No cases of type III anatomy were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The majority of GSD in this population had type II PDA anatomy that was amenable to ACDO deployment. Predisposition for large MDD and occasional, unusual PDA anatomy suggests that transesophageal echocardiography may be beneficial for optimal procedural planning in this breed.