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Global Gradient Algorithm Extension to Distributed Pressure Driven Pipe Demand Model

Menapace, Andrea, Avesani, Diego
Water resources management 2019 v.33 no.5 pp. 1717-1736
algorithms, models, pipes, water distribution
It has been proved that the standard representation of water demand in a Water Distribution Network (WDN) leads to pipe head loss errors as well that the fully satisfied demand regardless water pressure assumption is misleading. This follows that different algorithms have been developed in order to overcome these two drawbacks although separately and independently. Consequently, this paper introduces an alternative formulation of the Global Gradient Algorithm (GGA), referred to as UD-PD, which is able to solve uniformly distributed pressure driven demands along the pipes of a WDN in extended period simulations. In addition, this new scheme is tested against reference solutions and its performances are compared with the standard WDN models. Finally, the UD-PD is applied to a real WDN under pressure deficit conditions. Numerical results show that the hydraulic heads computed with the UD-PD result higher than those simulated with standard demand driven models and that the UD-PD is able both to capture the non linear behavior of the hydraulic head along the network and to correctly compute the flow inversion even in pressure driven conditions.