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Comparative Study on the Bread Making Quality of Normoxia- and Hypoxia-Germinated Wheat: Evolution of γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Starch Gelatinization, and Gluten Polymerization during Steamed Bread Making

Wang, Pei, Liu, Kexin, Yang, Runqiang, Gu, Zhenxin, Zhou, Qin, Jiang, Dong
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.12 pp. 3480-3490
breadmaking, breadmaking quality, breads, crosslinking, dough, enzyme activity, fermentation, gamma-aminobutyric acid, gelatinization, gelation, gliadin, glutamic acid, gluten, glutenins, pasting properties, polymerization, rheological properties, starch, steaming, wheat, wheat flour
To explore the bread making characteristics of germinated wheat flour, the current study focused on the componential evolution throughout the steamed bread making process. Hypoxia-germinated wheat (HGW) dough produced the maximum γ-aminobutyric acid as a result of high glutamic acid decarboxylase activity during fermentation compared to normoxia-germinated wheat (NGW) and sound wheat (SW). HGW was superior to NGW in terms of rheological properties and restored the organoleptic characteristics as SW bread. Blocking of α-amylase activity and protein polymerization demonstrated that the decline in pasting and gelation properties was not caused by changes in intrinsic starch and protein properties. Polymerization of α- and γ-gliadin to glutenin was facilitated in germinated wheat bread, while the cross-linking degree of glutenin–gliadin was suppressed. In comparison to NGW bread, more high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits but less α-gliadin fractions polymerized upon steaming of HGW dough. Results demonstrate that HGW has great potential to be exploited as a nutritious functional ingredient for wheat-based food.