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Hesperetin and Hesperidin Improved β-Carotene Incorporation Efficiency, Intestinal Cell Uptake, and Retinoid Concentrations in Tissues
- Nie, Meimei, Zhang, Zhongyuan, Liu, Chunquan, Li, Dajing, Huang, Wuyang, Liu, Chunju, Jiang, Ning
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.12 pp. 3363-3371
- Citrus, beta-carotene, bioavailability, hesperetin, hesperidin, human cell lines, in vitro digestion, intestines, mice, micelles, models, naringenin, naringin, tissues
- Dietary constituents can influence the bioavailability of carotenoids. This study investigated the effect of citrus flavanones on β-carotene (Bc) bioavailability using four experimental models: in vitro digestion procedure, synthetic mixed micelles, Caco-2 cell monolayers, and gavage experiments in mice. The addition of hesperetin (Hes, 25 μM) and hesperidin (Hes-G, 25 μM) standards significantly increased the incorporation efficiency of the Bc standard to 68.7 ± 3.6 and 75.2 ± 7.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. However, the addition of naringenin (Nar, 25 μM) and naringin (Nar-G, 25 μM) standards significantly reduced the incorporation efficiency of Bc by 23.8 and 26.4%, respectively (p < 0.05). The increases in scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expression promoted by citrus flavanones played an important role in Bc cellular absorption in the Caco-2 cell model. Furthermore, after 3 days of gavage, four citrus flavanones (7.5 mg kg–¹ day–¹) increased the retinoid concentrations in tissues; in contrast, after 7 days of gavage, Nar and Nar-G significantly decreased hepatic retinoid concentrations (p < 0.05). This finding suggested that the incorporation efficiency into micelles was the main step governing carotenoid bioavailability.