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Hesperetin and Hesperidin Improved β-Carotene Incorporation Efficiency, Intestinal Cell Uptake, and Retinoid Concentrations in Tissues

Nie, Meimei, Zhang, Zhongyuan, Liu, Chunquan, Li, Dajing, Huang, Wuyang, Liu, Chunju, Jiang, Ning
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.12 pp. 3363-3371
Citrus, beta-carotene, bioavailability, hesperetin, hesperidin, human cell lines, in vitro digestion, intestines, mice, micelles, models, naringenin, naringin, tissues
Dietary constituents can influence the bioavailability of carotenoids. This study investigated the effect of citrus flavanones on β-carotene (Bc) bioavailability using four experimental models: in vitro digestion procedure, synthetic mixed micelles, Caco-2 cell monolayers, and gavage experiments in mice. The addition of hesperetin (Hes, 25 μM) and hesperidin (Hes-G, 25 μM) standards significantly increased the incorporation efficiency of the Bc standard to 68.7 ± 3.6 and 75.2 ± 7.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. However, the addition of naringenin (Nar, 25 μM) and naringin (Nar-G, 25 μM) standards significantly reduced the incorporation efficiency of Bc by 23.8 and 26.4%, respectively (p < 0.05). The increases in scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expression promoted by citrus flavanones played an important role in Bc cellular absorption in the Caco-2 cell model. Furthermore, after 3 days of gavage, four citrus flavanones (7.5 mg kg–¹ day–¹) increased the retinoid concentrations in tissues; in contrast, after 7 days of gavage, Nar and Nar-G significantly decreased hepatic retinoid concentrations (p < 0.05). This finding suggested that the incorporation efficiency into micelles was the main step governing carotenoid bioavailability.